How To Develop A Science Fair Hypothesis

Science Fair Hypothesis

Younger students will often participate in science fair by presenting a science experiment that has a predictable result. That is, these age groups will follow instructions and use commonly found materials to demonstrate a fact or interesting tidbit about the nature of biology or chemistry. Older students, however, have advanced beyond simply using experiments that have already been done thousands of times before. At this age they will often be required to develop a science fair hypothesis and take all the necessary steps to prove or disprove that hypothesis. This requirement is designed for the older students because they have developed the learning and thinking abilities required for analysis and application. These higher order thinking skills are used to develop the science fair hypothesis and put that hypothesis to the test.

A science fair hypothesis can be developed around any topic related to science. One of the most popular science fair hypothesis categories currently being explored by older students is in the environmental arena. Many students are developing their own creative science fair hypothesis in order to address the concerns of environmental issues. While these topics decreased for a while, they are making a strong comeback, as students want to research a science fair hypothesis that will have a positive impact on the health of the planet. Many of these science fair hypotheses are developed by students at the high school level as an attempt to discover solutions to issues such as pollution, clean water, greenhouse gases and other problems we are facing on the environmental front. The current student body of budding young scientists is very motivated and interested in issues on this topic.

A science fair hypothesis surrounding the need for solutions to our even increasing concern for the health of the planet is one from which we all benefit. While the adult world may view these science fair projects as kid stuff there are others that will seriously consider the findings of these young scientists. Scientists currently working in environmental fields judge many of these science fairs. They are in search of the creative minds of the future generation in hopes of encouraging them to continue their work in testing a science fair hypothesis. What begins in school may just be the solution to our ecological problems on the planet.

Potential Of Open Source Technologies

Open source technologies have emerged as a serious threat to proprietary software owing to their free to use nature. The popularity of open source technologies has forced companies selling proprietary software to roll out cheaper versions of their software. It has also forced these companies to innovate and add value to their existing range of software products.

Open Source Technologies when used to develop ERP systems have the potential to drastically reduce the marketing, distribution and sales costs of organizations selling ERP software. Existing proprietary ERP systems are too costly to install and require a lot of customization to suit the specific requirements of an enterprise. Open source softwares allow the source code to be modified by users in line with the changing dynamics of the market. Proprietary systems, on the other hand, do not give such freedom to users and for every modification; users have to depend on the vendor. This proves to be a costly exercise but since proprietary systems are slightly more secure than open source systems; organizations that are paranoid about security usually opt for the former.

Open source technologies are an ideal way for companies to execute internal projects at the lowest cost. If the applications that need to be developed do not have a bearing on customer satisfaction then the sensible way to develop them would be to use open source technologies. However, customer facing websites and applications would require the support of a vendor if the applications have been built using open source technologies.

By exerting a downward pressure on price, open source alternatives indirectly help in improving the PC penetration in developing countries as more number of people are able to take advantage of software systems to improve their daily lives. Open source technologies also help companies to reduce the cost of setting up and maintaining their telecom infrastructure. Open Source Technologies have helped students, amateurs, professionals and those in the SOHO segment of the market to build applications without bothering about software and licensing costs.

Open source technologies have helped immensely in the promotion of e-learning technologies. Being free to use they have helped in lowering the cost of delivery and therefore helped a larger section of the audience to take advantage of open source technologies. Shopping cart solutions built on the open source platform have helped companies to set up and maintain online storefronts at very low costs. Easy availability of shopping cart solutions has helped in the development of an internet economy.

Music Science Fair Projects

Music Science Fair Projects

Students and adults alike might be surprised that an interest in music and participation in a science fair can be combined. Music science fair projects are some of the most interesting demonstrations at the school event. Most people enjoy some style of music in their car, at home, with a personal music player, in a band, or at concert. Many people enjoy singing in a choir. What all these venues have in common is obviously music. What most participants do not realize is that there is science at work in every note they play, sing or hear! Music science fair projects offer the students and the visitors to the event to learn completely new concepts of science as they relate to music. Many of these people will leave the event with a deeper level of understanding of and appreciation for the magical science that is music!

Music science fair projects are chosen by students who have a love of the universal language that we all call music. The most creative students will choose music science fair projects to investigate the various topics surrounding the production and enjoyment of music. The first category of music science fair projects will focus on different ways to produce the tones that human being consider musical. This may include an investigation of the sounds of music from different cultures. Included in this are the unique instruments found around the world. Additionally, this may investigate the rhythms that different cultures gravitate toward. These types of music science fair projects will also demonstrate the creativity of students as they develop their own mechanisms for making musical tones. The most popular of these are crystal containers filled with various depths of water.

The other group of students presenting music science fair projects may focus on the effects that music has on people. Instead of examining the instruments, these students will explore the old adage that music hath charms to sooth the savage breast. There are still research studies being conducted on the soothing effects of music on various demographics of people as well as different animal and plant life. These students who present demonstrations and research findings on this data also increase everyones understanding and appreciation for the universal language of music.

Current Science Article Stem Cell Research in the Spotlight Once Again

Recent discoveries about the role of stem cells in cancer have altered the landscape of cancer research, says Medical News Today. There is, however, a long-running philosophical rift over stem cell research at both the state and federal levels. Some groups would rather focus on adult stem cell research, avoiding the moral and ethical questions about research involving embryos. While ethical debate on human embryonic stem cells will continue, much more is occurring on the rings surrounding this bull’s-eye issue, including research in both drug development and adult stem cells.

Biologists’ understanding of new sources and uses of adult and nonembryonic stem cells is advancing rapidly. Called “niches” or “crypts,” it seems that almost anyplace one looks in the body (nose, eye, hair follicle, intestine, bone marrow, central nervous system), stem cells are being found. From such basic knowledge, it has been reported that successful animal and human therapy using patient stem cells is already occurring. As more stem cell crypts are discovered, the desire to understand how to manipulate them within the body only becomes more acute.

At the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, researchers presented new discoveries about stem cells in leukemia, breast and colon cancer that add to the growing evidence that perhaps cancer is, fundamentally, a stem cell problem.

Interviewed by Vision Magazine at the Stem Cells World Congress earlier this year in La Jolla, California, veterinarian and CEO of Vet-Stem, Robert Harmon, explained how his company is currently providing stem cell therapies for animals. Injected into an injury or degenerated tissue, the stem cell treatment evokes healing in unprecedented ways. As it has been since its discovery almost 400 years ago, the cell and the “vital force” that makes it the seat of biological life continues to hold attention. It is likely that there will be no end to the moral and ethical questions and investigations. Today’s new age of molecular understanding, genomics, proteomics, gene splicing and bioengineering is barely underway. It is not surprising, then, that the more we know, the more we recognize how little we understand.

The timeline of discovery has been exponential: from discovery of the DNA double helix in 1953, and the understanding of the genetic code, gene splicing and cell differentiation in the 60s, 70s and 80s, science rapidly jumped up the learning curve to the cloning of whole organisms and the discovery of embryonic stem cells less than a decade ago. The future possibilities for the application of this knowledge seem enormous.

Read the full article about Stem Cell Research and interviews with speakers at the Stem Cells World Conference at Vision.org.

The Importance Of Keeping Accurate Notes In Science

Science is a progressive act. This means that progress in science is a tedious process that requires diligent efforts with respect to record keeping because in the case of every scientist, figuring out everything about a field of study, such as any given sub-niche of chemistry, is impossible, even in a lifetime. Record keeping is of utmost importance and accurate record keeping can and will make the difference between work that is successfully continued by a scientist’s successors and work that is not successfully continued.

In the field of science, all of us stand on the shoulders of giants. In other words, we all learn from our predecessors and build on what they have taught us. However, we are able to learn only from those who have successfully transcribed their knowledge in an accurate and concise fashion so as to facilitate the propagation of the knowledge to those who follow.

Accurate lab notes are a must. Accurate lab notes will have a variety of properties including but not limited to:

An accurate introductory description of the process or processes being studied. For the information following the introduction to be understood in it’s proper context, an accurate introductory description has to be described clearly. Why is this subject of interest? What is the current understanding of the subject and why does it need to be studied further? What questions need to be answered before true progress can be made? All of these question should be covered in the introduction.

Clear and concise methodology. The work that is performed or is to be performed must be clearly spelled out for those reading the notes to understand the important steps to be taken to repeat and confirm the results. Each step must be labeled in detail and must be done so in a way that can be repeated using the notes alone. This is important if results are to be duplicated.

Well documented and understandable results. The results that are discovered by the initial experimenter should also be spelled out in clear detail as they may differ from the results obtained by those following them and trying to repeat their work. If results differ, this should be clearly noted by the scientists attempting to repeat the work and differences in results should also be clearly noted.

Objective conclusions. Conclusions should be recorded and based on evidence and results obtained. If data or results have discrepancies, these should be noted and discussed in the conclusion.

Computer Science Scholarships

There are many computer science scholarships for students working towards these exciting careers. The following are considered to be the top 10:

1. AFCEA Educational Foundation Scholarship: The AFCEAs $2,000 General John A. Wickham Scholarships are awarded to full-time sophomore, junior or senior students with GPAs of 3.5 or higher who are enrolled full time in aerospace, computer engineering, computer science, electrical engineering, math or physics programs at accredited four-year institutions.

2. $2,000 Alice L. Haltom Educational Fund: These computer science scholarships are awarded in $2,000 increments for students working towards a bachelors degree and $1,000 increments for students working towards an associates degree.

3. ESA Foundation Computer and Video Game Scholarship: The ESA Foundation established these $3,000 scholarships in 2007 for women and minorities attending or planning to attend accredited four-year colleges and universities and working towards degrees that will lead to careers in the computer and video game industries.

4. Intel Science Talent Search: These $100,000 computer science scholarships go to one lucky college student each year. Applicants must submit applications by November 17 for the following year.

5. NFB Computer Science Scholarship: The NVM provides about 30 scholarships each year at its national convention to U.S. blind students who participate in the entire NFB convention and are pursuing or planning to pursue full-time, postsecondary studies (except for one scholarship given to a part-time student working full time).

6. ThinkQuest Internet Challenge: $5,000 computer science scholarships from the Oracle Education Foundation are available to teams of students through this international website-building competition.

7. SWE Scholarship Program: $10,000 scholarships are awarded to female students in accredited bachelors or masters programs preparing for computer science, engineering and engineering technology careers.

8. UC/Edison International Scholarship Program: These $15,000 computer science scholarships are available to community college transfer students planning to finish B.S. degrees in computer science, engineering, life science, math, physical science or technology.

9. Upsilon Pi Epsilon Student Award for Academic Excellence: UPE offers several $500 scholarships to computer science students who excel in their national competition.

10. XEROX Technical Minority Scholarship Program: $10,000 computer science scholarships are available for minority students pursuing technology careers.

Find the perfect Computer School today and start your path to a rewarding career.

Science & social responsibility in public health

Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end

Public health ethics is on the map. In the past year, bioethicists and public health practitioners have begun to focus their critical attention on this complex and understudied topic. Much remains to be done. Childress et al. (2002), for example, describe their account of public health ethics as a rough conceptual map of a terrain with undefined boundaries.

Our focus will be on the responsibilities of epidemiologists, a choice made for several compelling reasons. Epidemiology sits at the center of the science and practice of environmental health, and more generally, at the center of public health. Although it is often referred to as a basic science of public health, epidemiology connects the acquisition of scientific knowledge with its application in preventive interventions, programs, and policies. This connection suggests a fundamental question: What are our responsibilities as epidemiologists? Do we, for example, have a joint responsibility to participate in science and to apply the knowledge gained? This is a key concern for us as researchers, health professionals, and as teachers.

The social responsibility of public health professionals is but one of many concerns in the broader picture of public health ethics. It is nevertheless a central concern. As Ogletree (1996) reminds us, responsibility is a concept particularly well suited to flame many key aspects of the ethics of professions faced with making decisions and taking actions in complex situations. These decisions often involve advanced technologies, high levels of specialization, and overlapping areas of expertise and concern among decision makers from diverse educational, political, and social backgrounds, precisely the situation in contemporary epidemiology and public health. In sum, responsibility organizes many (although not all) of public health’s ethical issues in terms appropriate for professional practitioners.

Responsibility has a deeper meaning as well, corresponding to commitment. To be responsible means to be committed to someone or to some thing. Being responsible in this deeper sense involves a commitment to positive action, to the pursuit and achievement of something of value, such as a social good (Jonas 1984). We will return to the notion of social goods in public health. For now, we want to emphasize that responsibility focuses attention on professional commitments

Finally, our inquiry is intended to assist all public health researchers who seek to define their social responsibilities. For those who are involved primarily in environmental health research, we can think of at least two connected and current topics–environmental justice and community-based participatory research.

Forensic Science Technician Jobs Opportunities And Salary

If you are interested in forensic science technician jobs, and have completed a degree program in forensics (or chemistry or biology with a concentration in forensics, depending on what was available to you), there are a lot of places where you can look to try to find available forensic science technician jobs.

Before starting your job search for forensic science technician jobs, it might be useful for you to go to the US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics website (www.bls.gov) to find out what type of salary you should expect for different types of positions in different locations.

The American Academy of Forensic Sciences lists forensic science technician jobs on their website at www.aafs.org. There aren’t necessarily a lot of positions posted here at any one time, but it is a good place to start your search.

You can also look for forensic science technician jobs on general job search websites. However, as there are many possible titles for these jobs, you should be sure to search under all the possibilities. These include: Ballistic Expert, Ballistician, Forensic Ballistics Expert, Crime Lab Technician, Crime Laboratory Analyst, Crime Scene Analyst, Crime Scene Investigator, Crime Scene Technician, Crime Specialist, Criminalist, Criminologist, Evidence Technician, Fingerprint Classifier, Fingerprint Expert, Forensic Chemist, Forensic Investigator, Forensic Pathology, Forensic Scientist, Keeler Polygraph Operator, Latent Fingerprint Examiner, Lie Detector Operator, Polygraph Examiner, Polygraph Operator, Ballistic Technician, Evidence Technician, and Forensic Science Technician, among others.

Different forensic science technician jobs focus on different aspects of the job. You might want to concentrate on applying for the forensic science technician jobs which require the skills you have the most experience with, or enjoy the most. If you have a lot of experience with polygraph tests, it might be better to apply for a Polygraph Examiner Position rather than a more general Forensic Science Technician.

According to Payscale.com, if you are just getting started out on your career, you can expect to make a median salary of $30,000 to $40,000 per year or so for forensic science technician jobs. Those with 10 years experience in forensic science technician jobs have a median salary of $64,998 per year, so experience definitely makes a difference in salary for this career.

Working for the federal government is also likely to pay more than working for state and local governments or a university. Location also makes a difference, with those working in some cities making much more than those in other cities. Louis Zhang, Certforensictechnician dot com

Want to become a forensic science technician? Get free information on forensic science technician jobs, salary, training at Certforensictechnician dot com.

Where To Look For Forensic Science Technician Jobs

If you are interested in forensic science technician jobs, and have completed a degree program in forensics (or chemistry or biology with a concentration in forensics, depending on what was available to you), there are a lot of places where you can look to try to find available forensic science technician jobs.

Before starting your job search for forensic science technician jobs, it might be useful for you to go to the US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics website (www.bls.gov) to find out what type of salary you should expect for different types of positions in different locations.

The American Academy of Forensic Sciences lists forensic science technician jobs on their website at www.aafs.org. There aren’t necessarily a lot of positions posted here at any one time, but it is a good place to start your search.

You can also look for forensic science technician jobs on general job search websites. However, as there are many possible titles for these jobs, you should be sure to search under all the possibilities. These include: Ballistic Expert, Ballistician, Forensic Ballistics Expert, Crime Lab Technician, Crime Laboratory Analyst, Crime Scene Analyst, Crime Scene Investigator, Crime Scene Technician, Crime Specialist, Criminalist, Criminologist, Evidence Technician, Fingerprint Classifier, Fingerprint Expert, Forensic Chemist, Forensic Investigator, Forensic Pathology, Forensic Scientist, Keeler Polygraph Operator, Latent Fingerprint Examiner, Lie Detector Operator, Polygraph Examiner, Polygraph Operator, Ballistic Technician, Evidence Technician, and Forensic Science Technician, among others.

Different forensic science technician jobs focus on different aspects of the job. You might want to concentrate on applying for the forensic science technician jobs which require the skills you have the most experience with, or enjoy the most. If you have a lot of experience with polygraph tests, it might be better to apply for a Polygraph Examiner Position rather than a more general Forensic Science Technician.

According to Payscale.com, if you are just getting started out on your career, you can expect to make a median salary of $30,000 to $40,000 per year or so for forensic science technician jobs. Those with 10 years experience in forensic science technician jobs have a median salary of $64,998 per year, so experience definitely makes a difference in salary for this career.

Working for the federal government is also likely to pay more than working for state and local governments or a university. Location also makes a difference, with those working in some cities making much more than those in other cities. Source : certforensictechnician.com

Science and Health Scientist Addresses Cancer Concerns Related to Atrazine

Elizabeth Whelan, President of the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) posted a great entry on ACSHs Health Facts and Fears blog on the growing attempts by activist groups to convince the EPA to ban atrazine due to cancer claims and other health concerns.

Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. It helps farmers fight weeds on corn, sugar cane and other crops, leading to dramatic increases in crop yields. Without it, our food supply would be in jeopardy. Activists want the public to believe that atrazine causes cancer and birth defects, but its simply not true. Whelan writes:

“Atrazines health and safety record is stellar. The Safe Drinking Water Act requires monitoring for a multitude of chemicals, including atrazine. Levels of atrazine in U.S. waters are well within the federal lifetime drinking water standard a level containing a 1,000-fold safety buffer. The Environmental Protection Agency in 2006 completed a 12-year review involving 60,000 different studies and concluded that the current use of atrazine poses “no harm” to the general population infants, children and adults. According to this same regulatory agency (which oversees pesticide use) atrazine is “one of the most closely examined pesticides in the marketplace.”

Whelan points out that many activists are not willing to accept this assessment and were able to cast doubts upon the issue with the EPA. As a result, last fall the EPA announced it would initiate a re-re-re-evaluation of atrazine and health. These activists will not be happy until the EPA bans this herbicide, which would then open the door for activists to attack more chemicals, claiming they are unsafe.

Finally, Whelan points to the media for “scaring” the public into thinking that these “chemicals” are unsafe and that the manner in which they are evaluated should be changed:

“Many of the recent media chemical scares, like the two hour “toxic” presentation on CNN, argue that a) there are tens of thousands of “chemicals” out there; and b) the current government policy, assuming these chemicals are safe until contrary evidence was presented, must be reversed so that a chemical is considered hazardous until it is “proven safe.” But how do you prove something to be safe? Its like trying to prove a negative it cant be done. The example of atrazine with decades of safe use, thousands of studies that found no harm to humans and years of getting a green light from EPA (which is not known for understating chemical risks) leaves us with the question: After all these evaluations and years of use, if atrazine doesnt meet the criteria for “safety,” what chemical possibly could?”